BBEST Tutorials - Complete Program
Worldwide, Brazil is the country with the cleanest energy matrix, with almost 50% of its primary energy supply derived from renewable sources. Biofuels, among them ethanol produced from sugarcane, represent today the largest part of the renewable energy of the country. It is important that this reality, without similarity in the world scenario of fossil fuels substitution, be analyzed and better understood in all its potentials. These include the spectrum from production and transformation of plant material to engine technology, adapted for ethanol use. In Brazil, sugar cane, with one of the highest productivities in the world, occupies pride of place as the most important raw material. Even recognizing the almost unique situation of the country with respect to this plant, there are lessons here to be learned by other countries seeking ways to reduce fossil fuels consumption. Of utmost importance are the related basic science and technology activities and the efforts towards sustainable practices throughout the production chain that explain the important learning curve constructed by Brazil in the ethanol field in the last 30 years. At the same time, Brazil is eager to learn from other countries how to improve efficiencies and sustainability of the bioenergy supply chain.
Having this scenario in mind, BBEST organizers identified the importance of offering a set of tutorials covering the technological, social, economic, and environmental aspects related to the production and use of the biofuels, with emphasis on sugarcane ethanol.
The tutorials are aimed at professionals involved in the production and use of biofuels, as well as researchers new to the area and graduate students developing their thesis project.
The technical review of biofuels production was organized in 8 tutorials, covering the principles and the basis of science and technology related to biofuels production and use, particularly sugarcane ethanol. Tutorials are intended to present the essential elements of their subject matter, in a didactic fashion, from introductory material up to the frontier problems . As such they are not intended to be technical specialized seminars that assume an extensive prior knowledge of the audience, but rather, extended colloquia giving the audience a birds eye view of the subject matter. Whenever possible, the tutorial should include some mention to the “hot topics” and frontier research in the area.
The eight tutorials are summarized below:

Tutorial 1 – Photosynthesis
The aim of this tutorial is to cover the molecular basis of photosynthesis, from light harvesting, water splitting, electron and proton transport up to Calvin’s cycle. Both molecular level and supramolecular structures are to be covered in order to give the student a structural and temporal (dynamics) perspective of the photosynthetic apparatus. Differences between C3 and C4 plants and efficiencies of conversion of sunlight into biomass will also be addressed.

Invited Lecturers: Daniel Bush - USA  and René Nome - UNICAMP
Science of photosynthesis:
- Light Capture
- C4 photosynthesis;
- Photosynthesis and Bioenergy;
- Photosynthesis and Global Climate Change;
- Source-sink relationships in Sugarcane.

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Tutorial 2 – Sugarcane Breeding and Agricultural Practices
This tutorial will address the basic concepts of how sugarcane is bred to produce new varieties and how modern molecular biology tools can be applied to improve the plant in the fastest possible way. It will also review sugarcane agricultural practices, with emphasis on the Brazilian experience. This experience will include field planning approaches, scheduling of field operations, cultivation and fertilization of plant and ratoon cane, application of industrial residues, harvesting and transportation planning, trends of manual and mechanized operations, controlled and reduced traffic patterns, among other aspects.

Invited Lecturers: Paul Moore - Hawaii Agricultural Research Center (EUA) and Oscar Braunbeck - CTBE (BRAZIL)
1. Sugarcane Biology and Genetics:
- Germplasm and Traditional Breeding;
- Agricultural Trait Characterization and Selection Process;
- Marker-assisted Breeding;
- Cultivar Legislation.
2. An overview of sugarcane production:
- Field planning;
- Field practices;
- Harvesting solutions;
- Traffic reduction for sugarcane mechanization.

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Tutorial 3 – Advanced Biofuels I – Ethanol Production
This tutorial will cover the present world experience in bioethanol production, focusing on sugarcane and corn as the most important raw materials. Although cellulosic ethanol offers many promises, sugarcane juice fermentation bioethanol still sets the relevant cost and efficiency benchmark to be achieved and, hopefully, surpassed. Productivity, energy conversion efficiencies and carbon emissions will be discussed. The Brazilian strategy of integrating bioethanol production, sugar production and electricity co-generation, to increase conversion efficiencies and to optimize the industrial plants for market demands, as well as the required innovations will be presented.
Invited Lecturers: Luiz Augusto Horta Nogueira - UNIFEI (BRAZIL). 
Ethanol production from sugarcane (advanced biofuel):
- Current technology;
- Integration with sugar production;
- Co-generation of bioelectricity;
- Innovations and technological breakthroughs;
- Ethanol production from corn and other raw-materials.

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Tutorial 4 – Advanced Biofuels II – Cellulosic Ethanol
This tutorial will discuss in detail liquid biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials, with emphasis on bioethanol. Both the biochemical (hydrolysis) and the thermochemical (catalytic convresion and gasification) routes will be explored, detailing the present technological status and the future forecast. The alternative of integrating current technology and cellulosic bioethanol production will be presented and discussed.

Invited Lecturers: Antonio Bonomi - CTBE (BRAZIL) and Steve Long - EBI
Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials:
- Biochemical Route - Enzymatic Hydrolysis;
- Biochemical Route - current Status and Research Strategy;
- Thermochemical Route - Current Status and Research Strategy;
- 1st and 2nd Generation Integration Strategy.

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Tutorial 5 – Biorefineries
This tutorial will describe in details the biorefinery concepts, raw materials used and products potentially obtained, in order to increase the sustainability of the biofuels production. Biorefinery technologies will be discussed with emphasis on th green chemistry (alcoholchemistry and sugarchemistry) routes as well as the optimization strategies to be used.
Invited Lecturers: Rubens Maciel Filho, UNICAMP (BRAZIL) and Wolfgang Marquardt, Aachen Univ (Germany)

Biorefineries concepts, raw materials and potentials:
- Biorefinery Technologies;
- Sugar and ethanol-based biorefineries;
- Green chemistry;
- Optimization of biorefinery alternatives.

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Tutorial 6 –Ethanol Engines
This tutorial will present the Brazilian experience in the use of ethanol as a fuel in light vehicles, mixed with gasoline or in flex fuel vehicles. It will also detail the possibilities for using ethanol in diesel applications. Particularities of ethanol ignition/engine will also be introduced, looking for new technological developments in the field. Emission reductions observed with ethanol use will be discussed, presenting measured results in Brazilian cities.

Invited Lecturers: Francisco B. Nigro - IPT (BRAZIL)
Ethanol uses as fuel:
- Ethanol ignition/engine;
- Brazilian experience:
- mixture with gasoline and flex-fuel;
- Diesel applications;
- Emissions reduction with ethanol use.

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Tutorial 7 – Sustainability I - Environment
This tutorial will focus on the international bioenergy sustainability agenda. Aspects such as energy ratio, greenhouse gases (GHG) avoided emissions, land use changes (direct and indirect), water resources requirement and quality, obtained in the biofuel production and use will be described and discussed. Detailed observed and measured sugarcane ethanol impacts will be presented.

Invited Lecturers: Jeremy Woods - Imperial College (UK) , Arnaldo Walter - UNICAMP(BRAZIL)

International bioenergy sustainability agenda:
- Energy ratio (fossil / renewable)
- GHG emissions reduction with biofuels production and use;
- Land use changes - dLUC and iLUC;
- Water resources (availability and quality) impacts.

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Tutorial 8 – Sustainability II – Socio-Economics of Biofuels
This tutorial will focus on the socio-economics aspects of sugarcane ethanol production, detailing the social benefits of the 35 years old Brazilian sugarcane ethanol program. A broad overview of the present and future characteristics of the global ethanol market will be presented, detailing the foreseen advances and drawbacks. Finally a comparison of different strategies for ethanol production and use, considering the Brazilian and the world fuel matrix, will be outlined.

Invited Lecturers: Marcia Azanha - ESALQ/USP (BRAZIL) and Annie Chimphango - Stellenbosch University (South Africa).

Economic aspects related to bioethanol production and use:

- Economic aspects of sugarcane ethanol production;
- Social benefits of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol program;
- Ethanol global market;
- Comparison of different strategies for ethanol production and use.

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